Jacobean references in Catalonia
Exist the feeling that Catalonia has kept to the margin of the movement jacobeu and of the peregrinació to Santiago of Compostela. But the reality is very different. Historically Catalonia a country that, since the first moment, connects with all the world jacobeu, how has been able to show in recent publications.
The religious cult to the Saint Apostle Jaume in Catalonia was very freqüentant since the first mediaeval centuries. Jaume’s the name derives of the Hebrew name Iacob, how the Iacobus, Jakobs, Jaques, Yago, Diego, Santiago (Saint-yago) James, Jactem, Jaume, Giacommo.
Jaume’s the name, very used in Catalonia, where carried it six abbots of Montserrat (s. XIV-XVI), and the royal dynasties, two Counts of Barcelona and kings of Aragon, two Counts of Urgell and three kings of Mallorca. The first king catalanoaragonès that carried Jaume’s name, was James I it Conqueridor. In the realms of Castella, Lion and Navarra any monarch carried Santiago’s name.
Catalonia has near 300 churches in advocació to Saint Jaume. In any other country is as used the name how here. Many villages celebrate the greater party in the date of the month of July that corresponds to Saint Jaume, the day 25. Places how. Source Romeu, Source Bordonera, Foot of Romeu, Santa Maria of the Path, the Hospitalet, Portal of the Romeus, etc., they do reference to places fear where happened the pilgrims.
In almost all the villages and cities for where happen the paths of pilgrimage to Santiago, that received the step of the pilgrims that went to postrar- at the front of the sepulcre of the Saint, were born legends and traditions that had a very important rooting and that the inheritance of a past majestuós, full of concern, and that configured the tradition Jacobea and the confirmation of the Walk of Santiago.
We have Christian legends and traditions very known and famous all over of the paths Jacobeus of all the Peninsula. In the classical French path that has his start to Roncesvalles is full of references to the presence of the Saint. Presences of everything type, so much in acts warriors
and in facts miraculosos. All these miracles and legends are dated from the year 800, moment in which took place the troballa of them undress of the Saint.
Catalonia is not an exception, well on the contrary, specifically have the first Christian legend of the fact Jacobeu, and that, still, in the actuality celebrates . It is the legend of the Foot of the Romeu, of Lleida.
The first miracle Jacobeu succeí to Saragossa, where appeared the Virgin, in mortal body, to Saint Jaume to the on of a pillar.
It says the legend, that Santiago desperate and tired of his apostolat for the peninsula, and in his return to Jerusalem, detained to Saragossa, where appeared it to him the Virgin Maria, to who knew of Palestine, in a pillar of stone or column, to comfort it and encourage it.
The Pillar remains like this joined to ones of the symbols jacobeus more important. Also narra this fact to Muxía (Finisterre) where the Virgin also attended to comfort Santiago Boanerges, considered Jesus’s brother for some, and therefore with a big vicinity to Maria.
The basilica of the Pillar of Saragossa one of the most important holy symbols of the pelegrinació to Santiago.
References jacobees on the way Catalá of Saint Jaume of Galicia.
In the route that followed the pilgrims before the 12th century since Catalonia to Compostela, is quite difficult of precisar an only path, but, since 1119, when Alfons it Batallador conquista the ribera of the Ebre and in the 1149, Ramon Berenguer IV conquers Lleida, the majority of the pilgrims followed the route of the old roman road, for Lleida and next for the ribera of the Ebre, until Logroño, since they did not owe to go through lands of Islamic domination.
Historically Catalonia, since the first moment, connects with all the mon jacobeu as it features documentalment. Doing a brief repàs to the documentation related with the fact jacobeu, find a significant series of data:
The year 905, the bishop of Urgell consecrates the old church of Frontanyà under the advocació of Saint Jaume, in front of the presence of the two children of the count Guifré the Pilós. This temple initiates the series of Catalan churches than since the 10th century until the 12th century «has for purpose the pelegrinació to Saint Jaume of Galicia», how affirms Puig and Cadafalch.
The year 959, there is constància of the pilgrimage of the abbot Cesari, of Saint Cecília of Montserrat, «I attended to the house of Saint Jaume of Galicia, headquarters apostòlica, where is buried in his apostòlica Galicia». The abbot Cesari went to Santiago’s headquarters, and no in Rome, when pretended the episcopalian headquarters of Tarragona.
The year 1036, arrives of Compostela Saint Ermengol, bishop of Urgell; the 1057, Ermesinda of Carcasonne, esposa of Ramon Borrell, Count of Barcelona.
The year 1173, the monk of the Monastery of Ripoll, Arnaldo of the Monte, reaches Compostela, where went to copy the Codex Calixtinus. Today it preserves , except the first chapter and part of the fifth, in the File of the Crown of Aragon in Barcelona.
The year 1195, a pilgrim illustrate was Alfons II, Count of Barcelona, and King of Aragon.
The year 1218, the king Jaume, decreed that the only pilgrims could be punished by the crimes that did during the pilgrimage, never for the previous.
The years 1362 and 1395, the popes Urbano V and Bonifaci IX, conceded spiritual privileges to the pilgrims that confessed in Montserrat his sins. Montserrat was one of the most visited places and constituted to yes same how a centre of pelegrinació, so much of gone how of return of Saint Jaume of Galicia.
References jacobees on the way Catalan of Saint Jaume of Galicia.
L´Hospitalet de Llobregat
The city had one of the thin hospitals of peregrins in Catalonia of here his name.
The part of mountain of the city called Samontà and the low part, the Marine.
The municipal term of l´ Hospitalet is trace back to the 10th century and one of the Saint parishes Eulàlia of Provençana to the centuries X y XI. The 12th century characterises for a self-evident growth of the population of the parish. Symptom d´this growth is the formation d´a new core of population: L´Hospital.
The 1215 finds documented for the first time the toponym of l´Hospital of Provençana. It treats d´a place situated to speaker of the parish term edge the neighbouring term of Cornellà. L´Apparition d´this toponym indicates the presence d´a hospital built a lot before d´this date. It is necessary to take into account that it has to happen a true time in order that a name of place popularise and difongui first verbalment and next in writing. Jaume Codina proposes that this hospital was founded by l´order religiosomilitar of San Juan of Jerusalem or of the hospitalers during l´last quarter of 12th century. Unfortunately no s´have found documentary references that confirm this hypothesis. Sinus that speaks d´a hostel where practised the beneficència, the charity, l´aixopuc to travellers and to peregrins. It was situated to the foot of the Real path, near of the White Tower and offered the service to the travellers that went to Barcelona or came .
It will impose the name of l´Hospitalet at the end of the 13th century when builds a new hospital for part of Pou Genaver and Joan Ramon. This hospital substitutes to what was edificat before. L´Apparition of this hospital or quarenter more modern had as a consequence a change of denomination of the place progressively.
Abrera To the 15th century or XVI formed the Greater street («the street», say the papers of the period, because no there was any more), along the path ral of Barcelona in Lleida and Saragossa, and between the 16th century and the XVII
Montserrat. Spiritual cradle of Catalonia, mountain of the comarca of the Bages is also and, very especially, a mountain symbol of a village. It is situated to midday of the comarca. The municipalities of Monistrol and Marganell deliver the half of the territory monserratí, the other half corresponds to the of the Heath and of Collbató, of the comarques of the Anoia and of the Low Llobregat respectively.
Hospital of Agualada or Aqualata – Saint Bartomeu
The city had since the 11th century, hospital, still does not know where was ubicat. In that period the population of Igualada was incipient and the existence of a hospital does to suspect, that a purpose was the to offer acolliment to the numerous pilgrims that followed the path of Saint Jaume.
His function, was more charitable than sanitary, majorment devoted more to receive pilgrims and ill poor, that to heal them. Thereof it deduces that the king Ferran of Antequera, that died to the city the year 1416, went to heal to a house benestant of the New street, and no not to the Hospital. Next they buried him to the Monastery of Poblet.
Mn. Joan Certain in his Historia of Igualada says that I existed a plague bubònica to the 16th century, «originated as it seems for a pilgrim of the Rosselló, called Nicolau, which died to the Hospital of Saint Bartomeu».
Church of Saint Bartomeu
The church of Saint Bartomeu, was enderrocada the year 1935. The year
1394 there are references of a pilgrim that it was detained when sold of pilgrimage and another of the 1430, of a pilgrim, natural of the Indies, that went to visit the sepulcres of Jerusalem, Rome, Saint Jaume of Galicia, and the chapels of Saint Bartomeu.
In the year 1884 in the altarpiece of the church there was the image of the Mother of God of the Desemparats, an image of the Saint apostle Bartomeu, and to each side the sculptural images of Saint Marcos and Saint Jaume. In the second altar venerated the Mother of God of the Pilar.
In a wall, under the heart, there was, attached by some irons, a big wooden cross, of 8 cm. Of wide, for 2,5 of thickness, and a length of 2,70 m for 2,20 m of creuer of arms. As the tradition, this cross carries it a pilgrim, that died in the Hospital of Saint Bartomeu, when went back of Saint Jaume of Compostela, doing fulfillment of a penance.
Santa Maria del Camí
Situated to the foot of the path ral of Barcelona in Aragon. It existed before the 1228, date in what was yielded to the monastery of Saint Cecília of Montserrat.
Mencionat For Domenico Laffi Boloñés, how Memenen (diminutiu of «mesón») in his newspaper of 1673, to Santiago’s his return. The castle and the parish of Montmaneu (Monte Command and Monte Menet) appears to the documents since the S XI. I existed an ancient hospital of pilgrims.
Called in the past Alcala, when was fortress muslina. There is the church of Saint Pallerols’s Jaume, SXII. The 1685, and in the village existed a hospital of pilgrims with rendes for two beds for ill that were of step.
Mencionat Fear Domenico Laffi Boloñés, how Mesoncillos (diminutiu of «mesón») in his newspaper of 1673, to Santiago’s his return.
Installed in the population the hospitalers (1111), that founded the order of Cervera, one of the most ancient of Catalonia.
Existed hospital for pilgrims to the 14th century.
Has his origin in a vila roman of the Low Empire. I existed hospital for the pilgrims.
Arnau Berenguer Of Anglesola founded to the 1139, the hospital for pilgrims and poor, that endowed with the rights of some of his possessions, ratified by his son Bernat of Anglesola, that trusted the direction to the abbot of Poblet.
Castellnou de Seana
Had possessions in the term of the order of the temple, next hospitalers of pilgrims.
Palau d’ Anglesola
Seems that the origin of the population finds in a palace or almunia Arab, that was conquered by Ramon Gombau of Anglesola, that desprès of the 1317, happens to the hospitalers of Lleida. The year 1405, sells the palace to the order of San Juan of Jerusalem and this happens to form part of the hospitable order of the Espluga Calba. The Palace continues to the senyoria of the order of the hospitalers, that will carry until the 18th century.
The 1322, the gentleman of the Palace of Anglesola, the comanador of Montalbà, was of the orde military of Uclés or of Saint Jaume of the Sword. The year 1405, sold the Palace to the orde of San Juan of Jerusalem and this happened to form part of the comanda hospitalera of the Espluga Calba, that perdurà until the 18th century.
Bell-lloch d´ Urgell
Mencionat for Domenico Laffi Boloñés, how Beglioch, in his newspaper of 1673, to Santiago’s his return.
Here established the nuns of Jonqueres, religious hospitaleres, known like Nuns Santiaguistes where kept a jurisdiction dominical. These nuns, known how Santiago’s Ladies had his monastery to the street Jonqueres of Barcelona, and were very related with Santiago’s order. The access to the order was restricted, to ladies of the nobility, and allowed them a life in common, with a ambient religious, without any tie of votes, being able to marry when wanted to. The convent was of closure and dressed a dark habit with ornamenta of yellow colour and carried embroidered to the breast a cross-Santiago’s sword.
The starts of the order would be to the monastery of Jonqueres, term of the
Castle of Terrace and now of Sabadell.
Of this city there is noticies of the step of clergymen and pilgrims going and coming of Rome to Saint Jaume of Galicia. The year 1485 initiated
the works of the new Hospital of Saint Maria, while since the 1483, existed an order to repair the hospital of the Antonians, that gave name to the portal of Saint Antoni, today avenue of Catalonia. Lleida had
7 hospitals of pilgrims, how also had hospital Cervera and Igualada.
Chapel of Foot of the Romeu Lleida
Legend of the fanalets
The noticies historical more ancient on the legend jacobea of the fanalets are of the period of the Renaissance, and on the devotion of the lleidatans to the Saint apostle Jaume, to the most immediate times of the Reconquesta (s. X).
In Lleida, where confluïen almost all the Catalan routes, arrived a pilgrim that went back of Finisterre and entered the city along the way of Saragossa, for the door of Saint Antoni. It walked with the barefoot feet and limping, then carried nailed a espina in a foot. For the pain of the wound detained and the moans of his patiment attracted the attention of the angels, others say that they were lleidatans, with some fanals lit that they lit the darkness of the night. They helped it to take out the bardissa and accompanied it to the Hospital of in Saw. By the day following, manifested to the lleidatans, that had attended in front of the unusual fact, how the Saint Apostle Jaume and the reason of his peregrinació, announce to the village Jesus’s life, the passion and the death.
Since immemorial time celebrate this historical fact, all the years, the vigília of Saint Jaume in the evening. The mainada of Lleida, takes part in a procession with fanalets lit accompanying the image of Saint Jaume, for the trajecte traditional, since the chapel of Can Saw to the chapel of the Foot of the Romeu.
The Grouping Ilerdenca of Pessebristes the entity that vetlla for the organisation of the Romeria and also of the contest of fanalets artistic, with the collaboration of institutions and citizen associations aplegades in fomentar and keep this ancient and singular tradition.
Lleida on the way
The year 1149 the count of Barcelona goes reconquistar Lleida, and remained of nine practicable the step to Aragon, to the pertinent men of the lands and ports of Tarragona and Barcelona. Since the 12th century, also through the Ribera of the Segre, downward since Puigcerdà, the Headquarters of Urgell and for Balaguer, pertinent men of the Llombardia, Provença and Llenguadoc, would reach Lleida taking advantage of that the open planures brought to the interior of the Peninsula.
To the average age, the influx of pilgrims for the streets of the city would constitute a periodic and constant fact. To finals of the 15th century, because of the enmity with the kings of France, the wars and the factions that infested the lands of the Principat did to diminish to a large extent the peregrinacions compostelanes, to the less, for what refers to the road of the Segre.
Neighbourhood of the Romeu
To the Average Age the term Romeu, to the less in our urban and local nomenclature, has the meaning of romeu or pilgrim. The Byzantine, called Romaios to all what was roman,
and like this, Romeo and Romea finished being names patronímics that indicated original people of the Latin Empire. Therefore Romeo would indicate the neighbourhood inhabited by Christian or mossàrabs. We see, then, that the expressions of Foot and Any of the Romeu were used by the lleidatans of the 15th century to indicate the beginning and the end of the street of pronounced pending, the longest and empinat of the old city.
Institute of Studies Ilerdencs – ISI
IEI HISTORY OF The IEI: ORIGINS and CONSTITUTION
The Institute of Studies Ilerdencs created the March 25, 1942, being Josep M. Porcioles President of the Deputation of Lleida.
The Ancient Hospital of Saint Maria, headquarters of the Institute of Studies Ilerdencs, had been until the year 1935 headquarters of the Museum of Art of Lleida that included the bottoms of pertinent sculpture of the ancient Archaeologic Museum of the Seminar Diocesà of Lleida and the bottoms of painting of the Museum Morera.
In bursting the Spanish Civil War, the 1936, the building is turned into Museum of the Village, gestionat for the Commissariat of Culture of the Generality of Catalonia in Lleida, and used as a deposit where pay all the pertinent materials of the confiscacions effected by the government of the Generality. Later, the March 27, 1938, this deposit remains in hands of the SDPAN (Servicio of Defence of the Patrimonio Artístico National).
The year 1941, the delegate of the SDPAN in Lleida is J.To. Tarragó Pleyan, who also is the person comissionada for the Deputation of Lleida to take possession of the building of the ancient hospital of Saint Maria and of all what contains.
The February 14, 1941, J.To. Tarragó Pleyan Presents a report on the installation of a historical file how one of the possible organs of the future: I Centre of Estudios Leridanos.
The negotiations to constitute the centre succeeixen a lot quickly.
The creation of the Instituto of Estudios Ilerdenses culminates in the meeting of the Managing Commission of March 25, 1942.
In the institutional life of the IEI distinguish clearly two stages: the FIRST PERIOD achieves since his creation the 1942 until the 1986; and the SECOND STAGE, since this year until the current.
IEI: DEFINITION and PURPOSES
The Public Foundation Institute of Studies Ilerdencs adopts, in the actuality, the shape of autonomous organism: this means that has the direct management, in diet of decentralisation, of the public service that the Deputation of Lleida has assigned him, in that case the services of culture. Enjoy juridical personality and own heritage.
Since the economic point of view depèn fundamentally of the aportació budgetary of the Deputation. It is subjected to the diet tutelar of this, that is to say, needs the approval of the Full of the Corporació provincial in relation to some aspects of his management, how for example, the budgets, the modification of the statutes, the designació of the director of the institution, etc. The constitution of this autonomous organism comes motivated by the traspàs of all the functions of culture of the Deputation to the Institute in order to avoid duality of functions with the new emergent organism, to finals of the decade of the seventy. This traspàs remains reflected in the purposes assumed by the Foundation.
In this way, we define as a purposes of the IEI:
- The promotion of the study and the research of the past,
present and future of the comarques of Lleida,
– The foment of the sciences, the letters and the arts,
– The cultural divulging,
– The normalisation of the use of the language.
Purposes and sectorial performances that combine with the common action of assistance and economic cooperation, cultural, technical and of any one other type, related with the Foundation, in favour of the comarques and the municipalities of the territory of Lleida.
GENERAL INFORMATION OF The IEI. The BUILDING: ANCIENT HOSPITAL OF SAINT MARIA
The Public Foundation Institute of Studies Ilerdencs of the Deputation of Lleida has his headquarters to the building of the ancient hospital of Saint Maria. Ubicat In the middle of the historical commercial centre of the city of Lleida, this building is one of the best exponents preserved of the Catalan civil gothic (15th-16th centuries).
Created for amalgamar the set existent private hospitals in the Lleida mediaeval, the general hospital of Saint Maria was initiated the year 1454, under the auspices of the paers of the city and of the queen Maria, Alfons’s wife it Magnànim.
If well the process of the works was characterised by numerous paralitzacions (the building did not finish until the first half of the 16th century), the general volume comes marked by the homogeneity.
Of all the building it is necessary to remark the central playground, of square structure, proportions balanced and of two levels of height, in which ressalta the noble scale of access to the upper flat and the gallery of arches aimed.
In the façades, noble and austeres, highlight espaiosos finestrals rectangular that light the two upper flats of the building.
Likewise it is necessary to mention that the decoration reserved for ornamentar the main façade chaired by a Gothic image of the Virgin Maria, advocació of the hospital. The sculpture incorporates also three shields of Catalan arms, work of Bertran of the Gunnel (1462-1485).
In the central playground surprises, since the architectural point of view, the escalinata of stone entirely cover and the gallery of arches that rodeja inwardly the building.
The plant and general elevations of the building was the result of the work of artists arisen of the work of the Old Headquarters, specifically of Jordi Safont and Jaume Borrel.
The hospital, how the rest of monumental buildings of Lleida, suffered the consequences of the War of Succession: if well it was created to be a public and civil hospital, Felip V used the half of his space all turning it into military hospital, function under which remained until the 1854 in which returned to use exclusively civil. From that moment, the Hospital subtracted in hands of the Paeria.
The year 1914, the Paeria and the Deputation did a convention to build a hospital that gave fit to the ill of the demarcation of Lleida. The works would go to charge of the Deputation and in return, the City council yielded him the Hospital of Saint Maria and a piece of land to the split of Rejolar (near the church of Saint Martí).
The 1918 the Deputation purchased some terrains on the road of Osca, and the 1923, under the direction of the architect Joaquim Porqueras and Bañeres, began the works of the new Hospital, that was inaugurated the May 1, 1928.
From that time on, different entities occupied the ancient Hospital of Saint Maria. Since 1934 to 1938 I turned into Museum of the Village.
The year 1942, the Deputation of Lleida, created the Institute of Studies Ilerdencs and yielded him the exclusive use of the building for his purposes. Since his origin, until well gone in the decade of the 1980, the IEI followed the official culture of the Franco regime.
The 1986, produced a deep reform of the Institution, in accordance with the political changes that experienced the society from the democratic transition.
In the actuality, the headquarters of the Institute of Studies Ilerdencs, receive the services of: numismatist, archaeology, files and bequeathed, audiovisual, publications, library-hemeroteca, inner diffusion, external diffusion, administration and economic management. Apart from these services the building also receive the activities of the departments of arts, sciences of the education, experimental sciences, mathematical and new technologies, juridical sciences, economic and social, sciences of the life and the health, mycology, geography and history, and letters.
The year 1915 the building happened to be property of the Deputation of Lleida, which allocated it to fine purely cultural: the year 1942 creates the Public Foundation Institute of Studies Ilerdencs and is him yielded the ancient hospital of Saint Maria as a headquarters perpetually.